Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to program organization and Object –Oriented –Programming in C++ by E Balagurusamy. 2. Object. Object Oriented Programming in C++ – – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Object Oriented Programming in C++ – Uploaded by. Subhash Chandra. Let Us C SOLUTIONS by Yashwant Kanetkar. Uploaded by.

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Some of the situations where inline expansion may not work arc: Specify all the classes and define functions to create the database and retrieve individual information as and when required.

Constant Expressions Constant Expressions consist of only constant values. Note balaguuruswamy, for form 3the constructor with default argument is used. Only existing operators can be overloaded. It is always nice if we could reuse something that already exists rather Lb a [j trying La create the same. The proceed of programming in an object-oriented language, therefore, involves the following ha sic steps: The function di splay Su balaguurswamy first evaluates the total value of the order and then prints the value.

The general form of a class declaration in: This kind of relationship is called containership or nesting, Creation of an object that contains another object is very different than the creation of an independent object. This makes the program much easier to write and reduces the errors that may be caused by having to scan back and forth.

The compiler 1 1 1′. In ease oopa multiple inheritance, the base classes are constructed in the order in which they appear in the declaration of the derived class. The files that are not modified need not be compiled again. Remember, we nee luwercaw “cc” for compiling C programs. When both the derived and base classes contain constructors, the base constructor is executed first and then the constructor in the derived class is executed.


Why then an alternative in made available? For C opy rig hted m ateri al PrincysJes of Object – On ented ProgrtiMtftirtQ 13 instance, object libraries must be available for reuse, Tbe technology 19 Still developing and current products maybe superseded quickly r Strict controls and protocols need to be developed if reuse is not to be compromised.

Some of the quality issues that must be considered for critical evaluation are: However, persistence a process, of storing objects is not fully supported by any cif i hem.

Balaguruswamy OOP with C++

For example, we may create X uh h constant object of the class, matrix as fallows: Display total value 3: For example, xputdata ; sends a message to the object x requesting it tn rli spiny itH mn tents.

Fi of instructions for tasks such as jumping to the function, saving regifttKrn, pushing arguments into the stack, and returning to the calling function. Absolute value of x.

Many programming problems can be cast into a hierarchy where certain features of one level are shared by many ools below that level.

Notice that after the first group of objects balagurusaamy created, AS is created, and then destroyed. Note that class specification, like a structure, provides only a template and does not create any memory space for the objects.

For example, we could define a dasH as follows: The class B is known as intermedial!!

For example, the constructor complex! Cue at a particular Language depends on dMracteristics and requirements of an application, organiEational impart, of the rtioice, and reuse of the cxigring programs.


Current account holders should also maintain a tninitnUM balance and if the ImlonCe falls below this level, a service charge is imposed. While it is possible to incorporate all the.

For example, a static data member can be used as a counter that records the occurrences of all the objects. Like C, the declaration is based on the data type of the variable it points te, The declaration of a pointer variable takes the following form: The most commonly used manipulators are end] and setw.


The overloading operator must have at least one operand that is of user-defined type Cv The compiler does not support automatic type conversions for the user defined data types. The mechanism of giving such special meanings to an operator is known as operator overloading.

O A reference variable provides an alternative name for a previously defined variable. Balagurusawmy class can inherit properties from more than one class which is known as multiple inheritance. It is important to note that the initialization of a reference variable is completely different from assignment to it. We can also declare both the pointer and the variable as constants in the following balaguruswamg Quit What Is your opti on?

It may also include function calls which return values. That is h a class can contain objects of other classes as its members as shown below: The constructor D l has a Uit 1 nf five firgurnente.

Similarly, we may use other member functions to perform any other operations on the array values. It will not work if we pass argument by value- because unly a copy uf the object that activated the call is passed to 0peratOr. That is, we can give several meanings to an operator, depending upon the types of arguments used.

The current account provides cheque bttok facility hut no interest. A constructor that accepts no parameters is called the default conxtructur. We have seen in detail how this is implemented using the concept of derived classes. Now let us review the access control to the private urn] protected members of a class. The following comment is allowed: